Information Update - Fall 2005
The Impact of Scholarship and Open Access Journals
The idea of open access was originally proposed by Stevan Harnad on a Virginia Tech mailing list in 1994 where he advocated the continuance of peer reviewed scholarly publishing in print with an Internet preprint archive freely available and accessible. As a result and in reaction to the "serials crisis" of escalating costs the academic research library community created SPARC, Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (http://www.arl.org/sparc/ ) to encourage alternative publishing endeavors, provide alternative titles to overpriced commercial titles, and cultivate relations between scholars and publishers. Alternative purchasing solutions came out of SPARC in the form of institutional memberships and subscriptions, but not the free access proposed by Harnad. Virginia Tech became a leader in the open access movement with NDLTD
"scientific and scholarly literature, its fee availability on the public Internet permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print search or link to the full texts for articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the Internet itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited." – Budapest, Hungary ( February 14, 200)
(http://www.ndltd.org/) a digital repository of theses and dissertations, followed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information and PubMed, the free content indexed in MEDLINE. The United States, late to the open access table, moved forward with the National Health Institute open access via PubMed Central, a digital repository for biomedical research.