Edmund M. Kosmahl, PT, EdD

Goniometry Web Site


Goniometry Definition and Procedure

Goniometer Parts

Positioning and Stabilization

Validity and Reliability

End Feel


Upper Extremity

Shoulder Flexion

Shoulder Extension

Shoulder Abduction

Shoulder Medial (Internal) Rotation

Shoulder Lateral (External) Rotation

Elbow Flexion

Elbow Extension

Forearm Supination

Forearm Pronation

Wrist Flexion

Wrist Extension

Wrist Radial Deviation

Wrist Ulnar Deviation  

Metacarpophalangeal Joint Flexion

Metacarpophalangeal Joint Extension

Metacarpophalangeal Joint Abduction

Metacarpophalangeal Joint Adduction

Interphalangeal Joint Flexion

Interphalangeal Joint Extension

Thumb Carpometacarpal Joint Flexion

Thumb Carpometacarpal Joint Extension

Thumb Carpometacarpal Joint Abduction

Thumb Carpometacarpal Joint Adduction

Thumb Carpometacarpal Joint Opposition

Lower Extremity

Hip Flexion

Hip Extension

Hip Abduction

Hip Adduction

Hip Medial (internal) Rotation

Hip Lateral (external) Rotation

Knee Extension

Knee Flexion

Ankle Dorsiflexion (subtalar neutral, differentiate for tightness of gastrocnemius)

Ankle Plantarflexion

Calcaneal (subtalar - hindfoot) Inversion

Calcaneal (subtalar - hindfoot) Eversion

Midtarsal (transverse tarsal) Inversion (alternate goniometer alignment as per Norkin)

Midtarsal (transverse tarsal) Eversion (alternate goniometer alignment as per Norkin)

Metatarsophalangeal Joint Dorsiflexion (extension)

Metatarsophalangeal Joint Plantarflexion (flexion)

Metatarsophalangeal Joint Abduction

Metatarsophalangeal Joint Adduction


Cervical Spine Forward Bending

Cervical Spine Backward Bending

Cervical Spine Sidebending

Cervical Spine Rotation

Thoraco-Lumbar Spine Forward Bending

Thoraco-Lumbar Spine Backward Bending

Thoraco-Lumbar Spine Sidebending

Thoraco-Lumbar Spine Rotation

Temperomandibular Joint

Temperomandibular Joint Opening

Temperomandibular Joint Protrusion

Temperomandibular Joint Lateral Deviation

Copyright 1999 E. Kosmahl