International Correspondence Schools of Scranton, Pennsylvania 1897-1996

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International Correspondence Schools of Scranton, Pennsylvania
History
1891 to the Present

The International Correspondence Schools of Scranton, Pennsylvania was founded in 1891 in the pages of Colliery Engineer and Metal Miner,1 a mining journal published in Shenandoah, Pennsylvania. Due to an excessive amount of mining accidents, Thomas J. Foster, publisher of the journal, insisted that miners be educated in mine safety beyond what they learn from their apprenticeships. Therefore, the state of Pennsylvania passed the Mine Safety Act of 1885, requiring miners and inspectors to pass examinations on mine safety.2 The test was exhaustive and the language was incredibly confusing, especially for miners who spoke little or no English. One of the questions on the test read:ics messenger

A fan is designed to produce a current of 175,000 cubic feet of air per minute; what should be the diameter of its central orifice if it receives its air upon each side?3

Many of the miners lacked the technical skill to answer such questions. After all, most of them had only a rudimentary education.

With their jobs in danger, miners demanded information to help prepare them for the examination. To assist them, Thomas J. Foster began publishing a "question and answer column" in the journal on mining methods and mining machinery. Later, the column was renamed the "correspondence column."4 Foster invited miners to send questions and problems to the staff and they would answer them. The number of questions was so great the staff had trouble providing satisfactory solutions. In response, Foster began preparing correspondence courses in coal mining.

In an editorial for the October 1891 edition of "The Colliery Engineer," the editor announced an arrangement between the journal and Alexander Dick, "an efficient and experienced Mining Engineer and Colliery Manager" to conduct a school of mining. The school would be known as "The Colliery Engineer School of Mines" with Alexander Dick serving as the director. Until the International Textbook Company incorporated the school in late 1894, the names Colliery Engineer School of Mines, School of Mines, Correspondence Schools, and the International Correspondence School were used


1Thomas J. Foster was editor and publisher of a weekly newspaper called "Shenandoah Herald" (May to 1 September 1879). The name of the journal was changed to "Mining Herald" in 1879. In August 1887, Foster changed "Mining Herald" to "The Colliery Engineer' as suggested by an English publication, "Colliery Guardian." By June of 1894, the scope of the journal had widened and the name was changed to the "Colliery Engineer and Metal Miner." In 1913 the name was changed back to "Colliery Engineer," the title used until it was discontinued in October 1915. Keary, Kathleen Marie. "The Foundation and Development of the International Correspondence Schools." Master's Thesis. Marywood University. Scranton, PA. 1935. P. 2-3.
2 Aurand, Harold W. "Education of the Anthracite Miner." Proceedings of the Canal History and Technology Symposium IV June 14 and 15, 1985: P. 95.
3 Ibid. P. 97.
4 Keary, Kathleen Marie. "The Foundation and Development of the International Correspondence Schools." Master's Thesis. Marywood University. Scranton, PA. 1935. P. 2.

interchangeably. By early 1895, the school was officially known as the International Correspondence Schools of Scranton, Pennsylvania or ICS for short.

The editor encouraged the miners to enroll in the program with the knowledge that they were not simply earning a cheap diploma but one "secured after a hard examination, [that] will be looked upon by employers as a guarantee of ability in those who possess it."5 Furthermore, potential students ics messenger2were assured that the courses would be written in simple language, thus, ensuring that even those with only a base knowledge of English could take the courses.

The first class enrolled 500 miners.6  Within eight years, over 190,000 students had enrolled in the courses. In addition to ornamental design, commercial education, and the "English Branches," courses were offered in forty other engineering trades.7  For a brief period, the school offered facilities for students who wished to travel to Scranton, Pennsylvania for illustrated lectures on mining topics; the surveying and mapping course was discontinued within the year because students could not spare the time or the money to travel to Scranton to take the course. The course was altered to fit into a more manageable pamphlet format.

The success and profitability of the company can be traced in its physical growth from the two rooms in the Coal Exchange Building in Scranton, which housed the "School of Mines" in 1891, to two multistory buildings, costing more than $250,000 in 1899.8  By the first decade of the twentieth century, over 100,000 new students per year were enrolling in ICS courses; by 1910, a million cumulative enrollments had been achieved; and, by 1930, four million. By World War II, ICS's reputation was such that it was given the War Department contract to develop the department's training manuals.9

The tremendous success of ICS was the result of demand, an excellent product, a superb organization, prescient marketing and advertising, as well as a few happy coincidences. ICS's managers were skilled at using available resources and new technologies to their advantage. For instance, without a well-developed mail and parcel post system, no correspondence system could have succeeded. By the time ICS began selling its correspondence courses, the United States Post Office had eleven major mail distribution centers, stretching from Boston and New York to St. Paul and Fort Worth. These centers handled nearly eight billion pieces of mail annually over 140,000 miles of rail lines. Also, the U.S. Post Office introduced its rural free delivery system (RFD) in 1891. By 1916 three million people were served by RFD. ICS also made the mailing process even easier by sending self-addressed envelopes to their students along with their books and instruction papers. Although the U.S. Post Office did not begin its parcel post service until 1913, ICS's textbooks could be delivered by any one of the four independent parcel delivery companies. Therefore, ICS was able to get its product almost anywhere in


5Ibid. P. 4-5.
6Aurand, Harold W. "Education of the Anthracite Miner." Proceedings of the Canal History and Technology Symposium IV June 14 and 15, 1985: P. 97.
7Watkins, James D. "Education for Success": The International Correspondence Schools of Scranton, Pennsylvania." Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 120(4) October 1996: p. 348.
8A fire on 30 August 1896 destroyed the Coal Exchange Building, thus forcing the school to relocate. A notice in the September edition of "The Colliery Engineer and Metal Minor" assured the students that their information had not been destroyed, thanks to the school’s policy of storing records in a separate location.
9Ibid. p. 349.

the country very early in its existence, which was of great importance considering students1001 stories were taking these courses for financial advancement.

ICS also offered its students a chance to enroll for courses on the installment plan, a marketing innovation begun by Singer to sell sewing machines in the 1850s.10 Courses could be paid for in advance or on a "sixty-days-same-as-cash" basis. Most students, however, opted for paying in three-, five-, or ten-dollar monthly installments. The installment plan was extremely important to most students, because some of the ICS courses were expensive. For example, in 1906, the "Complete Architecture" course cost $110 if paid in advance. The price rose to $122 on the ten-dollar plan, $130 on the five-dollar plan, and $135 on the three-dollar plan.11 These payment plans allowed people who did not earn much to take advantage of an incredible educational opportunity on a budget.

Also of great importance was the ICS educational philosophy. The proprietors of ICS realized that "practical men with small education [we] re in the majority," and therefore directed all of their initial efforts to this group. Once the business was established, the self-described mission of the school was to provide "practical men with a technical education, and technical men with a practical education."12  The school reflected the beliefs of Thomas Edison, who stated that he "did not like the ‘practical’ electrician, because he does not know enough about the nature of the case to be intrusted to him, and on the other hand, he [did] not fancy the theoretical electrician, simply because he [was] 'too helpless.'"13

ICS’s success is owed to its understanding the market and its prospective students. Influenced by the popular Horatio Alger books, people were looking to pull themselves up by their bootstraps and climb the social and economic ladder. In 1908 ICS proclaimed:

Our courses are all prepared from a utilitarian standpoint; that is, it is always kept in view that the reason the student is taking one of our courses is that he desires to put the knowledge obtained into immediate practical use. We are not aiming to train the mind, but to give the student such information regarding the principles, theory, and practice as he can use with the position he is aiming to fill.14

ICS stressed promotion and upward economic mobility, not the moral uplift favored by the majority of the nineteenth-century education reformers. ICS’s success proved that working men and women were thinking along the same lines.

To achieve its goal, ICS did not instruct its students by standard textbooks, which it believed often contained extraneous amounts of material and "demand[ed] too great a knowledge of mathematics and other subjects." Instead, ICS created its own specially prepared, leather-bound "Instruction and Question Papers," which provided exactly the information the student needed and questioned him only on that material. Because the


10Ibid. p. 350.
11Ibid. p. 350.
12Ibid. p. 350.
13Ibid. p. 350.
14Watkins, James D. "Education for Success": The International Correspondence Schools of Scranton, Pennsylvania." Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 120(4) October 1996: p. 350. Ibid. P. 368-369.

Increased opportunities for formal schooling in the twentieth century eventually relegated correspondence schools to much smaller roles in education. Beginning in the 1920s, many more American teenagers began attending and completing high school and receiving the education they might previously have received later in life through the mail. Further, the development of junior colleges and, later, community colleges also cut into ICS and other correspondence schools’ client base by offering higher, technical, and "semiprofessional" education to students in their own home towns, often at costs competitive with correspondence schools and with the added attraction of immediate teacher contact. The GI Bill, which allowed thousands of veterans who previously could not have attended any institution of higher learning, also hurt correspondence enrollment. The AA and BA/BS degrees offered by two- and four-year institutions had more prestige than any certificate offered by ICS and other correspondence schools. By the 1950s ICS and many other correspondence schools were on a downward slope.

Although ICS still operates today, under the name Education Direct, it is on a much smaller scale. Furthermore, instead of providing courses that might lead a student to the upper echelons of his or her chosen field immediately, ICS mainly offers entry-level education to service-industry jobs. As times have changed, the names of the courses have changed too, for example: "Electrical Engineering" has been changed to "Electrical Engineering Technology" and the "Complete English Branches" has been changed to "Teacher Aide." Although the goals and offerings of ICS have changed considerably, its importance in the American education system cannot be underestimated. At its peak, the International Correspondence Schools and its contemporaries offered many working men and women their only chance at "education for success."15

Bibliography

Aurand, Harold. W. "Education of the Anthracite Miner." Proceedings of the Canal History and Technology Symposium IV June 14 and 15, 1985: PP. 93-103.

Keary, Kathleen Marie. "The Foundation and Development of the International Correspondence Schools." Master’s Thesis. Marywood College. Scranton, PA 1935.

Watkins, James D. "Education for Success": The International Correspondence Schools of Scranton, Pennsylvania." Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 120(4) October 1996: PP. 343-369.


15Ibid. P. 368-369.

 

International Correspondence Schools of Scranton, Pennsylvania
Scope and Content Note

The records of the International Correspondence Schools date from 1897 to 1996. The collection contains eight subgroups: newsletters/circulars/scrapbooks; course books; the Tafuri collection; textbooks; miscellaneous ICS documents and artifacts; over-sized ICS artifacts; and over-sized ICS scrapbooks.

The newsletter/circulars/scrapbooks subgroup contains three scrapbooks, a ledger, and a copy of the ICS Messenger. The scrapbooks contain newspaper clippings and advertisements for various courses ranging in date from 1899 to 1915; the third scrapbook is in fragile condition with some leather rot. The ledger is in fragile condition with the first article printed in German, a few of the articles are in French, but most are in English. The ICS Messenger has a loose cover and leaves book dust on hands and clothing; it contains an incentive pamphlet for salesman as well as a list of graduates for May 1905, there is also a letter from Amherst Colleges stating that the college has adopted the ICS system of teaching German.

The course books subgroup contains thirty-six course books. The course books are subdivided into 5 subcategories: Woman’s Institute of Domestic Arts and Sciences; Woman’s Institute Library of Cookery; Woman’s Institute Library of Cookery; Serving Foods for Profit: A Course of Training; and Technical Textbooks. The Woman’s Institute of Domestic Arts and Sciences group has nine 8x5 in books ranging in date from 1933 to 1938. They cover such topics as sewing, lace making, and laundering; all of the books are in good condition. The first Woman’s Institute of Library Cookery group contains five 8x5 in books from 1925. They are introductory courses to the culinary arts; all of the books are in good condition. The second Woman’s Institute Library of Cookery group contains eight 8x5 in books. Most of the books are from 1929; there is one book from 1940. They cover such topics as food buying and preparation; all of the books are in good condition. The Serving Foods for Profit: A Course of Training group contains two 8x5 in books from 1932 and 1940; both books are in good condition. They cover the business side of the food industry such as establishing a food business and buying and selling food products. The Technical Textbooks group contains twelve 7.5x5 in books from 1932 to 1940. All of the books are in good condition. The topics covered are automobile and aviation engines.

The Tafuri collection subgroup contains twelve course books. The books are 7.5x5 in and are in good condition. The date range is 1940 to 1951. All of the books have authors listed instead of the general "Written by ICS Staff" notice. Most of the books concern the train regulations; there is one book about airplane regulations.

The textbooks subgroup contains one hundred thirty-seven 7.5x5 in books and three Guidance Manuals. The books range in date from 1897 to 1970 and are in relatively good condition considering these are all paper editions; a few of the books have loose covers or are missing the covers altogether. Some of the books have authors listed; some have "ICS Staff" listed as the author. The topics are diverse in nature. They range from algebra, engineering, aviation, window displays, aerodynamics, lettering, to marketing psychology.

The miscellaneous ICS documents and artifacts subgroup contains information ranging from the early 1900s until 1996. It contains: two 11x14 in leather bound books; one of the books is sealed in plastic due to dry rot, both books are in delicate condition. There is also a folder that contains: six pictures of the ICS building from around the late 1970s; two computer generated pictures of the Distribution Center and the Business/Mathematics Center; architectural drawing of the ICS building; panoramic photograph of the ICS building; a pencil sketch of Ralph E. Weaks, ICS President; a mock up of the ICS executive letterhead; a pamphlet: "Why I.C.S. Business Courses Lead in Education" by the International Correspondence Schools; an Annual Report from1957; a photocopy of book chapters about ICS; an envelope labeled: "Return to Product Development" containing: ICS pamphlet "ICS Since 1890…from the first name in home-study career training"; a picture of Thomas Foster, founder of ICS; a memo to production from production development re: production development marketing brochure (29 August 1996); an ICS brochure rough draft (4 sheets); an instruction slip (found in Aviation Engines, 1933); various papers found in Copy Book #7 (June 1930); a folder labeled "Product Development Art Routing Form" containing 3 photocopies of a drawing of a baseball player; a computer printout of a vampire; a drawing of the back of a vampire; a paper listing the various definitions of the word "count"; and mock ups for the ICS Handbook. There is also an envelope labeled "ICS History" which contains: two photocopies of The Foundation and Development of the "International Correspondence Schools", a thesis by Kathleen Marie Keary, written in 1935 for Marywood University; two photocopies of The History of I.C.S.; an article from Forbes magazine entitled "Blue-Collar Harvard" from 15 November 1965; a news release: "ICS Alumni Helped Build Scranton…And the World"; five pages of photocopies of ICS postcards; a photocopy of The ICS Story: 65 Years of Educational Service; two copies of Highlights of ICS History; six ICS Student Newsletters from 1978 to 1980; a return envelop addressed to ICS; several math problems on a sheet of paper; two sets of answers to the Examination Questions from Fred Hemmler; an ICS advertisement; an envelope addressed to Fred Hemmler; seven ICS Percentage Certificates for Fred Hemmler; two requests from ICS for postage due; one copy of a brief history of ICS; one envelope addressed to Fred Hemmler; a letter to a student from the ICS School of Mechanical Drawing; a letter to a student from the Principal of the School of Mechanical Drawing; a copy of the newsletter: The Independent; a letter to Faith Besemer from Viv Sloane dated 20 September 1993; a news release: "Thomas Foster’s Quest for Mining Safety Becomes the Largest Home-Study School in the World." There also fourteen French lesson phonographs; most of them are in good condition (condition status is determined by visible detection of flaws, not by sound quality), three of the phonographs are broken. There is also a copy of the I.C.S. Reference Library; an International Correspondence Schools certificate for Martin P. Munshower that was found between the front cover of the I.C.S. Reference Library; two textbooks that were also found between the cover of the reference book: Arithmetic Part 1 Instruction Paper with Examination Questions and Timber Trees Instruction Paper with Examination Questions, the books are in fragile condition and the binding is delicate.

The over-sized ICS artifacts subgroup contains eight items from 1901 to 1993. These items are: a copy of the 20th anniversary issue of Upper and Lowercase: The Journal of Type and Graphic Design; three ICS scrapbooks from November 1943 until July 1943 that contain publicity clippings, some of the clippings have come loose from the pages, most of the clippings are identified by date and source, a few are not; there is a folder labeled "Pa’s Blueprints ICS Courses" which contains nineteen mechanical drawings (some have ICS Percentage Certificates attached to them), three loose ICS Percentage Certificates for Mr. T. Tedesco dated 8 October 1901, 22 October 1901, and 22 April 1907; and a small red envelope labeled "Some of Pa’s repack slips from ICS." There are also mock-ups for the ICS Handbook, a panoramic picture of the ICS building, and a copy of the Street Railway Journal from 1902; it is wrapped in tissue paper due to its delicate condition.

The over-sized ICS scrapbooks subgroup contains three large scrapbooks from 1899 to 1915. The scrapbooks contain advertisements from various magazines, journals and newspapers, testimonials, and short stories from I.C.S. students. The scrapbooks are in relatively good condition, the last scrapbook is in fragile condition and it has a little bit of leather rot. There is also one ledger that contains much of the same information as the scrapbooks. The index is handwritten. The first article is written in German (?), there are also a few advertisements written in French, but the majority is in English. There is also a cartoon stressing the importance of meeting enrollment quotas. The book is in delicate condition.

The advertising subgroup contains ten copybooks from 1899 to 1942. The copybooks contain advertisements from magazines and newspapers, with a lot of the advertisements geared toward women. Some of the advertisements are written in German or Spanish, but a majority of the books are in English. In some of the books, there are loose pages or some of the clippings have been cut out of the page. The fifth copybook is in fragile condition, with the rest being in relatively good condition.

International Correspondence Schools of Scranton, Pennsylvania
Subgroups and Series

The International Correspondence Schools Collection was arranged into subgroups based on function and form of the material. Physically, the arrangement is on the shelf according to ease of accessibility (i.e. the larger, bulkier items are on the bottom shelf so that it is easier to view and access the materials).

Subgroups

  1. Newsletters/Circulars/Scrapbooks
  2. Course Books
  3. Tafuri Collection
  4. Textbooks
  5. Miscellaneous ICS Documents and Artifacts
  6. Over-sized ICS Artifacts
  7. Over-sized ICS Scrapbooks
  8. Advertising
  9. Additional Material from Oscar Meisel Jr.
  10. Answers to Exam Questions of Lincoln Conrad

    1. Newsletters/Circulars/Scrapbooks
      1. Scrapbook- December 1900; 3 advertisements for Steam Engineering courses - stuck between pages; advertisements from magazines offering courses (1897); testimonials; short stories from I.C.S. students; some of the newspaper clippings flip between 1899 and 1900; advertisements and articles about other correspondence schools.
      2. Scrapbook – December 1899-16 February 1902; information about I.C.S. from newspapers and magazines.
      3. Ledger – 2 May 1907; fragile condition; first article is in German (?); index is handwritten; advertisement clippings; series of "Exchange Advertising Bulletins"; mostly advertising sales pitches; newspaper clippings; some advertisements in French – most in English; cartoon articles stressing the importance of meeting enrollment quotas.
      4. Scrapbook – 2 May 1914; newspaper clippings; fragile condition – binding has leather rot; many of the names of the newspapers are identified; clippings contain information about student success; some clippings have separated from scrapbook; group of clippings tucked into the book; near end there is an article concerning instructors selling stocks to students (17 March 1915).
      5. I.C.S. Messenger, beginning 7 January 1905, Number 61 and ending 30 December 1905, Number 155; overall good condition except the cover is loose and it will leave book dust on clothing; incentive pamphlet for salesmen; list of graduates for May 1905; letter from Amherst College stating I.C.S. system of teaching German has been adopted by the college (15 January 1904).
    2. Course Books
      Woman's Institute of Domestic Arts and Sciences 
      1. Sewing Materials: Development of Textiles, Cottons, Linens, Wools, Silks, Laces; 1936; 8x5 in black cloth; good condition.
      2. Home Sewing: Finding, Mending, Household Sewing, Trade and Sewing Terms; 1936; 8x5 in black cloth; good condition.
      3. Children's and Maternity Garments: Maternity and Infants' Garments, Children and Misses' Garments; 1937; 8x5 in black cloth; good condition.
      4. Laundering and Dry Cleaning: Home Laundering, Dry Cleaning; 1938; 8x5 in black cloth; good condition.
      5. Dyeing, Remodeling, Budgets: Dyeing, Remodeling, the Upkeep of Clothing, and the Budget; 1938; 8x5 in black cloth; good condition.
      6. Dressmaking, Trimming, Finishing: Perfection in Details, Finishes, and Trimmings; 1937; 8x5 in black cloth; good condition.
      7. Principles of Tailoring: Essentials of Tailoring, Tailored Seams and Plackets, Tailored Buttonholes, Buttons and Trimmings, Tailored Pockets; 1933; 8x5 in black cloth; good condition.
      8. Tailored Garments: Tailored Suits, Coats, and Capes, Garments for Men and Boys; 1937; 8x5 in black cloth; good condition.
      9. Sewing for Profit: The Dressmaker and the Tailor Shop, Specializing in Sewing; 1937; 8x5 in black cloth; good condition.

      Women's Institute Library of Cookery

      1. Essentials of Cookery, Cereals, Breads, Hot Breads; Volume 1; 1925; 9x6 in; good condition.
      2. Milk, Butter and Cheese, Eggs, Vegetables; Volume 2; 1925; 9x6 in; good condition.
      3. Soup, Meat, Poultry, Game, Fish, Shellfish; Volume 3; 1925; 9x6 in; good condition.
      4. Salads, Sandwiches, Cold and Frozen Desserts, Cakes, Cookies, Puddings, Pastries, Pies; Volume 4; 1925; 9x6 in; good condition.
      5. Fruit and Fruit Desserts, Canning and Drying, Jelly Making, Preserving and Pickling, Confections, Beverages, The Planning of Meals; Volume 5; 1925; 9x6 in; good condition.
      6. Vegetables as Food: Preparing and Cooking Vegetables; 1929; 8x5 in brown cloth; good condition.
      7. Preparing Fruits: Cold Desserts, Hot Desserts, Sauces, Frozen Deserts; 1929; 8x5 in brown cloth; good condition.
      8. Dairy Products: Milk, Butter, Fats, Cheese, and Eggs; 1929; 8x5 in brown cloth; good condition.
      9. Cakes and Pies: Cakes, Cake Icings and Fillings, Small Cakes, Pastries, and Pies; 1929; 8x5 in brown cloth; good condition.
      10. Soup and Meats: Soup, Meats, Beef, Veal, Mutton and Lamb, Pork; 1929; 8x5 in brown cloth bound textbook; good condition.
      11. Salads, Sandwiches, Confections; 1929; 8x5 in brown cloth; good condition.
      12. Buying and Preparing Foods; 1940; 8x5 in brown cloth; good condition.
      13. Cereals and Breads; 1929; 8x5 in brown cloth; good condition.

      Serving Foods for Profit: A Course of Training

      1. Establishing a Food Business; 1932; 8x5 in brown cloth; good condition.
      2. Purchase and Sale of Foods; 1940; 1948 Edition; 8x5 in brown cloth; good condition.

      Technical Textbooks
      1. Automobile Electric Ignition; C.R. Strouse; 1939; 7.5x5 in black cloth; good condition.
      2. Starting and Lighting – Lighting Devices; C.R. Strouse; 1940; 7.5x5 in black cloth; good condition.
      3. Automobile – Engine Tune Up; C.R. Strouse; 1940; 7.5x5 in black cloth; good condition.
      4. Trigonometry – Slide Rule – Mechanics; I.C.S. Staff; 1936; 7.5x5 in black cloth; good condition.
      5. Formulas – Cube Roots – Logarithms; I.C.S. Staff; 1932; 7.5x5 in black cloth; good condition.
      6. Mechanical Principles; 1934; 7.5x5 in black cloth; good condition.
      7. Combustion Engine Fuels and Heat; J. Vanderdoes, M.E, L.H. Morrison, C.T. Baker; 1935; 7.5x5 in black cloth; good condition.
      8. Aviation Engines; Volume 1; Donald Carpenter, Herbert Chase, M.E., I.C.S. Staff; 1933; 7.5x5 in black cloth; good condition.
      9. Aviation Engines; Volume 2; Donald Carpenter and I.C.S. Staff; 1931; 7.5x5 in black cloth; good condition.
      10. Aviation Engines; Volume 3; Donald Carpenter and I.C.S. Staff; 1933; 7.5x5 in black cloth; good condition.
      11. Types of Aircraft and Materials; F.W. Wead; 1931; 7.5x5 in black cloth; good condition.
      12. Airplane Parts and Maintenance; F.W. Wead; 1931; 7.5x5 in black cloth; good condition.
    3. Tafuri Collection
      1. Freight Transportation and Classification; G. Lloyd Wilson, A.M., M.B.A., Ph.D.; 1951; 7.5x5 in black cloth; good condition.
      2. Freight Tariffs; G. Lloyd Wilson, A.M., M.B.A., Ph.D.; 1940; 7.5x5 in black cloth; good condition. 
      3. Southern, Western, Southwestern Rates; G. Lloyd Wilson, A.M., M.B.A., Ph.D; 1940; 7.5x5 in black cloth; good condition.
      4. Transcontinental Rates – Rail-Water Rates; G. Lloyd Wilson, A.M., M.B.A., Ph.D. and C.E. Johnston, M.A., B.Litt., M.B.A.; 1940; 7.5x5 in black cloth; good condition.
      5. Freight Routing, Shipping Documents, Claims; G. Lloyd Wilson, A.M., M.B.A., Ph.D. and C.E. Johnston, M.A., B.Litt., M.B.A.; 1941; 7.5x5 in black cloth; good condition.
      6. Regulation of Railroads and Motor Carriers; C.E. Johnston, M.A., B.Litt., M.B.A and J. Ninian Bell; 1941; 7.5x5 in black cloth; good condition.
      7. Freight Traffic in Canada; C.E. Johnston, M.A., B.Litt., M.B.A and W.I. Alexander; 1942; 7.5x5 in black cloth; good condition. 
      8. Packing and Traffic Control; W.B. Lincoln, Jr., Development Engineer and C.E. Johnston, M.A., B.Litt., M.B.A.; 1942; 7.5x5 in black cloth; good condition.
      9. Water Carriers – Regulatory Procedure; C.E. Johnston, M.A., B.Litt., M.B.A.; 1943; 7.5x5 in black cloth; good condition.
      10. Motor Classification, Certificates; C.F. Jackson and C.E. Johnston, M.A., B.Litt., M.B.A.; 1943; 7.5x5 in black cloth; good condition.
      11. Motor Freight Tariff Publications and Rates; C.E. Johnston, M.A., B.Litt., M.B.A.; 1943; 7.5x5 in black cloth; good condition. 
      12. Air Transportation; Claude E. Puffer, Ph.D.; 1949; 7.5x5 in black cloth; good condition.

  1. Textbooks
    1. Steam Engines Part 1; Kenneth r. Gromlich, B.S.; 1953; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    2. Engine Installation; ICS Staff; 1949; 9x6 in paper; front and back covers are tattered.
    3. Diesel Engine Construction; ICS Staff; 1947; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    4. Diesel Engines Part IV: High Speed Engines; J. Vanderdoes, M.E.; 1950; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    5. Principles of Jet Propulsion; H.G. Wintersteen; 1949; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    6. Aviation-Engine Ignition; H.G. Wintersteen; 1949; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    7. The Airplane and Its Parts Part 2; H.G. Wintersteen; 1948; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    8. Aircraft Metalwork Part 1; H.G. Wintersteen; 1950; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    9. Aircraft Propellers; H.G. Wintersteen; 1955; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    10. Jet Engines; H.G. Wintersteen; 1956; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    11. Airplane Instruments Part 1; Daniel J. Brimm, Jr.; 1943; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    12. Aircraft Accessories; H.G. Wintersteen; 1954; 9x6 in paper; good condition; 2 copies.
    13. Airplane Handling and Maintenance Part 1; H.G. Wintersteen; 1956; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    14. Elementary Aerodynamics; ICS Staff in Collaboration with F.K. Teichman, M.M.E., AeroE.; 1962; 9x6 in paper; front and back covers are off.
    15. Electrical Measuring Instruments Parts 1 and 2; Paul MacGahan, Fellow, A.I.E.E.; 1948; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    16. The Roadmaster and His Work Parts 1 and 2; E.E.R. Tratman, C.E.; 1932; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    17. Marine Diesel Engines Part 1; J. Vanderdoes; 1937; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    18. Automobile Spray-Painting Preparation; ICS Staff; 1949; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    19. Automobile Front Axles, Springs, and Shock Absorbers; W.J. Williams; 1959; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    20. Automobile Piston Assemblies; Paul Dumas and ICS Staff; 1950; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    21. Automatic Transmissions Part 3; William K. Toboldt and W.J. Williams; 1951; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    22. Carbureters; J. Vanderdoes, M.E.; 1938; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    23. Gas Engines Part 2; J. Vanderdoes, M.E.; 1938; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    24. Railroad Location; ICS Staff; 1950; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    25. Oil Burning Under Stationary Boilers; F.B. Sando, M.E.; 1948; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    26. Ice Cream and Dairy Refrigeration; C.T. Baker and ICS Staff; 1953; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    27. The English of Business Part 2; Hubert A. Hagar, Marie M. Stewart, and E. Lillian Hutchinson; 1948; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    28. Sales Letters; M.D. Rhinelander; 1955; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    29. Routine and Adjustment Letters; Ralph L. Wood; 1955; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    30. The Mechanics of the Letter; M.D. Rhinelander; 1953; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    31. Window and Interior Display Part 1; Robert Kretschmer; 1952; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    32. Aviation Engines Part 2; Figure Drawings; good condition.
    33. Geometrical Drawings; ICS Staff; 1935; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    34. United States Land Surveys Part 1; John Cleary and ICS Staff; 1936; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    35. The Section Foreman and His Work; E.E.R. Tratman, C.E.; 1940; 9x6 in paper; good condition; 2 copies.
    36. Mathematics; Key; 1909; 9x6 in paper; cover is separated; pages torn.
    37. Financial Calculations; Stuart Chase, C.P.A.; 1922; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    38. Elementary Mechanics Part I; Instruction Paper with Examination Questions; 1906; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    39. Logarithms; I.C.S. Staff; Instruction Paper with Examination Questions; 1924; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    40. Logarithms; Instruction Paper with Examination Questions; 1917; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    41. Algebra Part 2; Instruction Paper; 1902; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    42. Elements of Algebra Part 1; Instruction Paper; 1904; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    43. Elements of Algebra Part 2; Instruction Paper; 1904; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    44. Arithmetic Part 2; Question Paper; 1897; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    45. Mensuration and Trigonometric Functions; Question Paper; 1898; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    46. Mensuration and Trigonometric Functions; Instruction Paper; 1898; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    47. Arithmetic Part 1; Question Paper; 1897; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    48. Arithmetic Part 1; Instruction Paper; 1897; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    49. Tables, 4th Edition: Natural Sines, Cosines, Tangents, and Cotangents; 1898; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    50. Marketing Organization; J. Robert Miller, Ph.D.; 1969; 9x6 in paper; pages stuck together; signs of moisture damage.
    51. Psychology in Marketing; Harry Walker Hepner; 1969; 9x6 in paper; signs of moisture damage.
    52. Creativity in Marketing Management; George A. Field, Ph.D.; 1967; 9x6 in paper; signs of moisture damage.
    53. Psychology for Better Advertising; Melvin S. Hattwick, Ph.D.; 1968; 9x6 in paper; fair condition.
    54. Corporation Organization and Accounting; R. J. Bennett, C.P.A.; 1913; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    55. Manual of Information; 1916; 9x6 in paper; includes I.C.S. advertisement; good condition; front and back covers missing from second copy; 2 copies.
    56. Arithmetic Part 1; 1899; 9x6 in paper; front and back covers off; 2 copies.
    57. Arithmetic Part 2; 1899; 9x6 in paper; front cover off; 2 copies.
    58. Arithmetic Part 3; 1899; 9x6 in paper; good condition; 2 copies.
    59. Arithmetic Part 4; 1899; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    60. Arithmetic Part 5; 1905; 9x6 in paper; good condition; 2 copies.
    61. Arithmetic Part 6; 1899; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    62. Railway Express and Parcel Post Rates; 1941; 9x6 in paper; good condition.
    63. The Formation of Letters; 1906; 9x6 in paper; front cover loose, back cover missing.
    64. Mensuration; 1905; 9x6 in paper; front and back covers loose.
    65. Mechanics and Mechanical Drawing; 1897; 9x5.5 in paper; front cover off, elaborate cover design included.
    66. Corporation Organization and Accounting Part 1; R. J. Bennett, C.A., C.P.A.; 1913; 9x5.5 in paper; good condition.
    67. Corporation Organization and Accounting Part 2; R. J. Bennett, C.A., C.P.A.; 1913; 9x5.5 in paper; good condition.
    68. Corporation Organization and Accounting Part 3; R. J. Bennett, C.A., C.P.A.; 1913; 9x5.5 in paper; good condition.
    69. Corporation Organization and Accounting Part 4; R. J. Bennett, C.A., C.P.A.; 1913; 9x5.5 in paper; good condition.
    70. Corporation Organization and Accounting Part 5; R. J. Bennett, C.A., C.P.A.; 1913; 9x5.5 in paper; good condition.
    71. Corporation Organization and Accounting Part 6; R. J. Bennett, C.A., C.P.A.; 1913; 9x5.5 in paper; good condition.
    72. Corporation Organization and Accounting Part 7; R. J. Bennett, C.A., C.P.A.; 1913; 9x5.5 in paper; good condition.
    73. Corporation Organization and Accounting Part 8; R. J. Bennett, C.A., C.P.A.; 1913; 9x5.5 in paper; good condition.
    74. Corporation Organization and Accounting Part 9; R. J. Bennett, C.A., C.P.A.; 1913; 9x5.5 in paper; good condition.
    75. Corporation Organization and Accounting Part 10; R. J. Bennett, C.A., C.P.A.; 1913; 9x5.5 in paper; good condition; 2 copies.
    76. Geometry and Trigonometry; 1902; 9x5.5 in paper; good condition.
    77. Geometrical Drawing Part 1; 1917; 9x5.5 in paper; good condition.
    78. Geometrical Drawing Part 2; 1917; 9x5.5 in paper; good condition.
    79. Stock Brokerage Accounting Methods; W. A. Fordham; 1920; good condition.
    80. Partnerships; R. J. Bennett, C.A., C.P.A.; 1914; 9x5.5 in paper; good condition.
    81. Insolvent and Decedents’ Estates; R. J. Bennett, C.A., C.P.A.; 1914; 9x5.5 in paper; good condition.
    82. Graphs; ICS Staff; 1915; 9x5.5 in paper; back cover off.
    83. Tables: Natural Sines, Cosines; Tangents; and Cotangents Fourth Edition; 1898; 9x5.5 in paper; good condition.
    84. Operating on the New York Stock Exchange; W. A. Fordham; 1920; 9x5.5 in paper; good condition.
    85. Auditing Part 1; R. J. Bennett, C.A., C.P.A.; 1914; 9x5.5 in paper; good condition.
    86. How to Use…Trig Slide Rules; Maurice L. Hartung; 1960; 8.5x5.5 in paper; good condition.
    87. Book Covers: How to Proceed with Your Studies and Manual of Information for Students.
    88. The Log Log Duplex Trig Slide Rule: Lyman M. Kells, F. Kern, and James R. Bland; 7.5x5.5 in paper; good condition.
    89. International Cotton Textile Workers’; Handbook; 1921; 5.5x3.5 in red cloth; good condition.
    90. Manual of Home-Study Courses; 1929; 7.5x5 in paper; front cover off; pages are loose.
    91. Procedure Handbook of Arc Welding Design and Practice; 1938; 9x6 in cloth; good condition.
    92. Plane Geometry; 1965; 9x6.5 in green cloth; good condition.
    93. Pumps and Hydraulics in Two Parts Part 1; William Rogers; 1905; 9x6 in black cloth; good condition.
    94. Pumps and Hydraulics: A Practical Treatise with Illustrations and Diagrams Part 2; William Rogers; 1905; 9x6 in black cloth; good condition.
    95. ICS Reference Library: Arithmetic, Elements of Algebra, Logarithms, Geometry and Trigonometry; 1905; 9x6 in comes with "The Sunday Times" book cover; cover from spine of book is located between the cover and the first page of the book; fair condition.
    96. Brown envelope labeled "Historical Items Enclosed" contains: letter from Harry L. Baldwin to ICS re: ICS Certificates of Enrollment (9 December 1996); special offer for ICS Students from Technical Supply Company; pamphlet: "How to Proceed with Your Studies"; pamphlet: "Bootstraps" Volume 4, Number 1; Certificate of Enrollment (10 March 1906); Certificate of Enrollment (21 March 1906).
    97. Decimals; ICS Staff; 1921; 7.5x5 in brown paper; good condition.
    98. Elementary Principles of Electricity; ICS Staff; 1935; 7.5x5 in brown paper; good condition.
    99. Combustion and Fuels; J. Vanderdoes; 1935; 7.5x5 in brown paper; good condition.
    100. How to Sell Your Services; William L. Fletcher and ICS Staff; 1933; 7.5x5 in brown paper; good condition.
    101. Airplane Parts; F. W. Wead; 1931; 7.5x5 in brown paper; good condition.
    102. Aviation-Engine Management; Donald Carpenter; 1933; 7.5x5 in brown paper; good condition.
    103. Airplane Maintenance; F. W. Wead; 1931; 7.5x5 in brown paper; good condition.
    104. Airplane Shop Processes; F. W. Wead; 1931; 7.5x5 in brown paper; good condition.
    105. Aviation-Engine Ignition, Lubrication, and Cooling; Donald M. Carpenter and ICS Staff; 1934; 7.5x5 in brown paper; good condition.
    106. Aviation-Engine Maintenance; Donald Carpenter and ICS Staff; 1929; 7.5x5 in brown paper; good condition.
    107. Aviation-Engine Carburetors; Donald M. Carpenter and ICS Staff; 1934; 7.5x5 in brown paper; good condition.
    108. Aviation Engines; Herbert Chase, M.E. and ICS Staff; 1933; 7.5x5 in brown paper; good condition.
    109. Aviation Engines Part 1; Herbert Chase, M.E. and ICS Staff; 1929; 7.5x5 in brown paper; good condition.
    110. Aviation Engines Part 2; Herbert Chase, M.E. and ICS Staff; 1929; 7.5x5 in brown paper; good condition.
    111. Types of Aircraft; F.W. Wead; 1931; 7.5x5 in brown paper; good condition.
    112. Mechanical Principles Part 1; 1934; 7.5x5 in brown paper; good condition.
    113. Mechanical Principles Part 2; 1934; 7.5x5 in brown paper; good condition.
    114. Heat; ICS Staff; 1931; 7.5x5 in brown paper; good condition.
    115. Mensuration; ICS Staff; 1935; 7.5x5 in brown paper; good condition.
    116. Formulas; ICS Staff; 1935; 7.5x5 in brown paper; good condition.
    117. Airplane Materials; F.W. Wead; 1931; 7.5x5 in brown paper; good condition.
    118. Combustion and Fuels; J. Vanderdoes, Me. E.; 1935; 7.5x5 in brown paper; good condition.
    119. Weights and Measures; ICS Staff; 1935; 7.5x5 in brown paper; good condition.
    120. Powers and Roots; ICS Staff; 1935; 7.5x5 in brown paper; ink stain on front cover otherwise good condition.
    121. Ratio and Proportion; ICS Staff; 1935; 7.5x5 in brown paper; good condition.
    122. Elements of Arithmetic; ICS Staff; 1934; 7.5x5 in brown paper; good condition.
    123. Aviation- Engine Accessories; Donald Carpenter and ICS Staff; 1933; 7.5x5 in brown paper; good condition.
    124. Fraction; 1935; 7.5x5 in brown paper; good condition.
    125. Tone Drawing; Jean Gallagher; 1960; 7.5x5 in brown paper; good condition.
    126. Vocational Guidance Manual: Courses of Study for Business and Industrial Careers. 1951. Light brown cover.
    127. Vocational Guidance Manual: Courses of Study for Business and Industrial Careers. 1953. Green cover.
    128. ICS Guidance Manual 1970.
    129. Mensuration: Instruction Paper. 1923.
    130. Elementary Mechanics, Part 1: Instruction Paper. 1921.
    131. Weights and Measures: Instruction Paper. 1923.
    132. Geometrical Drawing, Part 2: Instruction Paper. 1922.
    133. Elements of Algebra, Part 3: Instruction Paper. 1923
    134. Algebra, Part 9: Instruction Paper. 1922
    135. Elements of Arithmetic: Instruction Paper. 1922
    136. Plane Geometry, Parts 1-6: Question Paper. 1922
    137. Plane Trigonometry, Parts 1-7: Question Paper. 1923
    138. Architectural Interiors; Edition 1; 1931
    139. Principles of Heating and Ventilation; Edition 1, Part 2; 1934
    140. Blower Systems of Heating; Edition 1, Part 2; 1935
    141. House Drainage; Edition 2; 1935
    142. Architectural Drawing; William S. Lowndes & Frederick Fletcher;
      Edition 2, Part 1; 1932
    143. Architectural Drawing; William S. Lowndes; Edition 1, Part 2; 1935
    144. The American Vignola (Elements of Architecture); Edition 4; 1929
    145. House Planning; William S. Lowndes; Edition 1, Part 1; 1937
    146. House Planning; William S. Lowndes; Edition 1, Part 2; 1937
    147. Theory of Architectural Design; Percy Ash; Edition 1; 1935
    148. Examples of Architectural Design; William S. Lowndes; Edition 1; 1930            
    149. Stair Building; William S. Lowndes; Edition 1; 1935           
    150. Builders’ Hardware; Edition 1; 1932
    151. Sheet-Metal Work; Edition 1; 1907
    152. Carpentry; William S. Lowndes; Edition 3, Part 1; 1933
    153. Carpentry; William S. Lowndes; Edition 2, Part 2; 1933    
    154. Carpentry; William S. Lowndes; Edition 2, Part 3; 1934
    155. Carpentry; William S. Lowndes; Edition 2, Part 4; 1934
    156.  Carpentry; William S. Lowndes; Edition 2, Part 5; 1934
    157. Carpentry; William S. Lowndes; Edition 2, Part 6; 1935
    158. Fireproofing of Buildings; J. J. Cosgrove; Edition 2; 1932
    159. Estimating Building Costs; William S. Lowndes; Edition 1, Part 1; 1934
    160. Estimating Building Costs; William S. Lowndes; Edition 1, Part 2; 1936
    161. Estimating Building Costs; William S. Lowndes; Edition 1, Part 3; 1934
    162. Estimating Building Costs; William S. Lowndes; Edition 1, Part 4; 1934
    163. Roofing; William S. Lowndes; Edition 1, Part 1; 1930
    164. Roofing; William S. Lowndes; Edition 1, Part 2; 1935
    165. Contracts; Edition 1; 1907
    166. Blower Systems of Heating; Edition 1, Part 4; 1930
    167. Graphical Analysis of Stresses; Edition 2, Part 1; 1904
    168. Graphical Analysis of Stresses; Edition 2, Part 2; 1934
    169. Specification – Writing Memoranda; David B. Emerson; Edition 2; 1934
    170. Plumbing Fixtures; Edition 2; 1934
    171. Specification Writing; David B. Emerson; Edition 1, Part 1; 1936
    172. Specification Writing; Edition 1, Part 2; 1934
    173. Water Supply to Buildings; Edition 1; 1929           
    174. Electric Wiring; Edition 1, Part 1; 1930           
    175. Electric Wiring; Edition 1, Part 2; 1934           
    176. Principles of Heating and Ventilation; Edition 1, Part 1; 1934           
    177. Projection Drawing; Edition 3; 1932           
    178. Geometrical Drawing; Edition 1; 1931
    179. Plastering; William S. Lowndes & D. Knickerbacker Boyd; Edition 2;
      1931           
    180. Cement, Concrete and Mortar; Samuel Baker & A. DeGroot; Edition 2; 1936
    181. Foundations; William S. Lowndes; Edition 1; 1934
    182. Areas, Vaults, and Retaining Walls; William S. Lowndes; Edition 2; 1934
    183. Operations Preliminary to Building; William S. Lowndes; Edition 1; 1930
    184. Excavating, Shoring, and Piling; William S. Lowndes; Edition 3; 1930
    185. Architectural Terra Cotta; Charles E. White, Jr.; Edition 1; 1929
    186. Face and Ornamental Brickwork; George J. Jervis; Edition 1; 1930
    187. Common Brickwork; William S. Lowndes & D. Knickerbacker Boyd;
      Edition 2; 1930
    188. Field Methods in Concrete Construction; Edition 3; 1934
    189. Hollow Tile; Charles E. White, Jr.; Edition 1; 1934
    190. Reinforced-Concrete Construction; Edition 2; 1933
    191. Limes, Cements, and Mortars; William S. Lowndes; Edition 1; 1934
    192. Ornamental Metal Work; William N. Mackey; Edition 1; 1931
    193. Stone Masonry; William S. Lowndes; Edition 2; 1931
    194. Building Stone; William S. Lowndes; Edition 2; 1930
    195. Painting and Wood Finishing; William S. Lowndes; Edition 2; 1934
    196. The Steel Square; Edition 1, Part 1; 1930
    197. The Steel Square; Edition 1, Part 2; 1930
    198. Warm-Air Heating; Samuel R. Lewis; Edition 1; 1937
    199. Blower Systems of Heating; Edition 1, Part 1; 1935
    200. Hot-Water Heating; Edition 1; 1937
    201. Steam Heating Systems; Samuel R. Lewis; Edition 1, Part 1; 1937
    202. Steam Heating Systems; Samuel R. Lewis; Edition 1, Part 2; 1937
    203. Blower Systems of Heating; Edition 1, Part 3; 1935
    204. Design of Spread Foundations; Samuel Baker; Edition 1, Part 1; 1935
    205. Design of Spread Foundations; Samuel Baker; Edition 1, Part 1; 1935
    206. Design of Spread Foundations; Samuel Baker; Edition 1, Part 2; 1935
    207. Design of Roof Trusses; S. Baker & G. M. Purver; Edition 1, Part 1; 1937
    208. Design of Roof Trusses; S. Baker, A. DeGroot, & G. M. Purver; Edition
      1, Part 2; 1937
    209. Mill Design; Edition 1; 1907
    210. How to Sell Your Services; William L. Fletcher; Edition 1; 1933
    211. Building Superintendence; Charles E. White, Jr.; Edition 1, Part 1; 1936
    212. Building Superintendence; Charles E. White, Jr.; Edition 1, Part 2; 1936
    213. Building Superintendence; Charles E. White, Jr.; Edition 1, Part 3; 1931
    214. Freehand and Ornamental Drawing; Edition 1; 1930
    215. Elements of Statics; A. DeGroot & Samuel Baker; Edition 1, Part 1; 1933
    216. Elements of Statics; A. DeGroot & Samuel Baker; Edition 1, Part 2; 1933
    217. Principles of Structural Design; J. P. J. Williams & Samuel Baker;
      Edition 1; 1930
    218. Structural Tables; Samuel Baker & J. P. J. Williams; Edition 1; 1931
    219. Loads in Buildings; Edition 1; 1932
    220. Design of Beams; Samuel Baker & J. P. J. Williams; Edition 1, Part 1;
      1931
    221. Design of Beams; Samuel Baker & J. P. J. Williams; Edition 1, Part 2;
      1937
    222. Design of Columns; Samuel Baker & J. P. J. Williams; Edition 1; 1931
    223. Beams and Girders; Edition 1, Part 3; 1906
    224. Reinforced-Concrete Design; Samuel Baker; Edition 2, Part 1; 1934
    225. Reinforced-Concrete Design; Samuel Baker; Edition 1, Part 2; 1933
    226. Reinforced-Concrete Design; Samuel Baker; Edition 1, Part 3; 1933
    227. Practical Mathematics Part 5
    228. Practical Mathematics Part 6
    229. Transformers
    230. Alternating – Current Rectifiers
    231. Alternating – Current Motors and Synchronous Converters
    232. Alternating Currents Part 2
    233. Alternating Current Measuring Instruments
    234. Industrial Motor Applications
    235. Alternating – Current Measuring Instruments
    236. Industrial Motor Applications
    237. Alternating – Current Rectifiers
    238. Alternating – Current Motors and Synchronous Converters
    239. Transformers
    240. Geometrical Drawing Part 1
    241. Geometrical Drawing Part 2
    242. Salesmanship
    243. Making the Sale Part 1
    244. Making the Sale Part 2
    245. Study of the Commodity
    246. Selling as a Business Force
    247. Mental Qualities Needed for Salesmanship
    248. Long – Range Salesmanship
    249. Electricity and Magnetism Part 1
    250. Electricity and Magnetism Part 2
    251. Interior Wiring Part 1
    252. Interior Wiring Part 2
    253. Direct Current Measuring Instruments
    254. Sign Wiring
    255. Sales Organization and Management
    256. Manual of Information
    257. Introduction to the Study of Your Course
    258. Mechanics and Machine Elements
    259. Resistance Measurements
    260. Selling to Dealers
    261. Study of the Customer
    262. Theory of D.C. Generators and Motors
    263. Retail Salesmanship Part 1
    264. Selling of Specialties Part 2
    265. Selling of Specialties Part 1
    266. Retail Salesmanship Part 2
    267. Direct – Current Motors
    268. Alternators
    269. Practical Mathematics Part 1
    270. Practical Mathematics Part 2
    271. Practical Mathematics Part 3
    272. Practical Mathematics Part

  2. Miscellaneous ICS Documents and Artifacts
    1. The Elements of Mechanical Engineering Volume IV; 11x14 in leather and paper binding; in a plastic bag; binding is loose.
    2. An Elementary treatise on Mechanical Drawing Volume II; 11x14 in leather and paper binding; front cover off; delicate condition.
    3. Folder containing: 6 pictures of the ICS building (circa late 1970s); 2 computer generated pictures of the ICS buildings – Distribution Center and the Business/Mathematics Center; architectural drawing of the ICS building; panoramic photograph of the ICS building; pencil sketch of Ralph E. Weaks, ICS President; mock up of the ICS executive letterhead; pamphlet: "Why I.C.S. Business Courses Lead in Education" by the International Correspondence Schools; Annual Report 1957; photocopy of book chapters about ICS; envelope labeled: "Return to Product Development" contains: ICS pamphlet "ICS Since 1890…from the first name in home-study career training"; picture of Thomas Foster, founder of ICS; memo to production from production development re: production development marketing brochure (29 August 1996); ICS brochure rough draft (4 sheets); instruction slip (found in Aviation Engines, 1933); papers found in Copy Book #7 (June 1930): folder labeled "Product Development Art Routing Form" contains 3 photocopies of drawing of a baseball player; computer printout of a vampire; drawing of the back of a vampire; paper listing the various definitions of "count"; mock ups for ICS Handbook.
    4. Envelope labeled "ICS History" contain

      The Foundation and Development of the "International Correspondence Schools"; Kathleen Marie Keary; 1935; Thesis for Marywood College; 34 pages; photocopy; 2 copies.
      The History of I.C.S.; 72 pages; photocopy; 2 copies. Article from Forbes magazine: "Blue-Collar Harvard"; 15 November 1965; page 43.
      News release: "ICS Alumni Helped Build Scranton…And the World." Photocopies of ICS postcards; 5 pages.
      The ICS Story: 65 Years of Educational Service
      ; 11 pages; photocopy. Highlights of ICS History; 2 copies.
      ICS Student Newsletters: Volume 1, Number 1, 1978; Volume 1, Number 2, 1978; Volume 1, Number 3, 1979; Volume 1, Number 4, 1979; Volume 2, Number 1, 1979; Volume 2, Number 2, 1980.
      Return envelope addressed to ICS.
      Math problems.
      Answers to Examination Questions from Fred Hemmler (2 sets). ICS Advertisement.
      Envelope addressed to Fred Hemmler.
      ICS Percentage Certificates for Fred Hemmler (7 slips).
      2 Requests from ICS for postage due.
      Brief history of ICS.
      Envelope addressed to Fred Hemmler.
      Letter to student from ICS School of Mechanical Drawing re: Drawing of Plate 1.
      Letter to student from Principal, School of Mechanical Drawing re: Geometrical Drawing Plates.
      Newsletter: The Independent Volume 101, Career Issue; 8 pages.
      Letter to Faith Besemer from Viv Sloane re: Course books (30 September 1993).
      News Release: "Thomas Foster’s Quest for Mining Safety Becomes the Largest Home-Study School in the World."

    5. ICS Language System with Tomas A. Edison Phonograph (Boxes do not necessarily correspond with the lesson number; condition status is based on visible detection not sound quality).

      French Lesson Reader Number 1; good condition.
      French Lesson Number 2; broken.
      French Lesson Number 3; good condition.
      French Lesson Number 4; good condition.
      French Lesson Number 5; good condition.
      French Lesson Number 7; good condition.
      French Lesson Number 9; good condition.
      French Lesson Number 10; good condition.
      French Lesson Number 11; broken.
      French Lesson Number 12; good condition.
      French Lesson Number 14; good condition.
      French Lesson Number 16-17; good condition.
      French Lesson Number 18-19; good condition.
      French Lesson Number 26-27; broken.

    6. I.C.S. Reference Library; International Correspondence Schools certificate for Martin P. Munshower inserted in the front jacket of the book; two textbooks inserted in the front jacket of the book: Arithmetic Part 1 Instruction Paper with Examination Questions and Timber Trees Instruction Paper with Examination Questions; books are in fragile condition; the binding is delicate.
  1. Over-sized ICS Artifacts
    1. Upper and Lowercase: The Journal of Type and Graphic Design, 20th Anniversary Issue, volume 20, number 1 (Spring 1993).
    2. ICS Scrapbook (November 1943): publicity clippings; identified by date and source.
    3. ICS Scrapbook (August 1943): publicity clippings: Scientific American (2 April 1898) loose from book; other clippings identified by date and source.
    4. ICS Scrapbook (July 1943): publicity clippings: some of the clippings are loose; date and source identification is there but it’s hard to tell where the clippings were originally located.
    5. Folder labeled: "Pa’s Blueprints ICS Courses" contains: 19 mechanical drawings (some have ICS Percentage Certificates attached to them); 3 loose ICS Percentage Certificates for Mr. T. Tedesco (22 April 1907, 22 October 1901, 8 October 1901); small red envelope labeled "Some of Pa’s repack slips from ICS".
    6. Mock ups for ICS Handbook.
    7. Panoramic picture of the ICS building.
    8. Street Railway Journal; 1902; wrapped in tissue paper; delicate condition.
    1. Over-sized Scrapbooks
      1. Scrapbook - December 1900; 3 advertisements for Steam Engineering courses - stuck between pages; advertisements from magazines offering courses (1897); testimonials; short stories from I.C.S. students; some of the newspaper clippings flip between 1899 and 1900; advertisements and articles about other correspondence schools.
      2. Scrapbook – December 1899-16 February 1902; information about I.C.S. from newspapers and magazines.
      3. Ledger – 2 May 1907; fragile condition; first article is in German (?); index is handwritten; advertisement clippings; series of "Exchange Advertising Bulletins"; mostly advertising sales pitches; newspaper clippings; some advertisements in French – most in English; cartoon articles stressing the importance of meeting enrollment quotas.
      4. Scrapbook – 2 May 1914; newspaper clippings; fragile condition – binding has leather rot; many of the names of the newspapers are identified; clippings contain information about student success; some clippings have separated from scrapbook; group of clippings tucked into the book; near end there is an article concerning instructors selling stocks to students (17 March 1915)
    2. Advertising
      1. Copy Book -1899-27 August 1901; advertisements from magazines; a lot of the advertising geared towards women; oversized book.
      2. Copy Book – April 1902-6 August 1903; technical advertisements from newspapers and magazines; index is handwritten; fair condition; some advertisements are in German; some of the pages have become detached from the binding; oversized book.
      3. Copy Book – January 1900-1924; some of the dates are out of order; fair condition; advertisements are from newspapers and magazines; some clippings are missing; a few lose advertisements with no obvious page location; one lose page; some of the pages have been repaired.
      4. Copy Book – June 1917-22 January 1922; missing clippings; section of paper with clipping cut out; many pages have separated from the binding.
      5. Copy Book – January 1922-November 1925; pages are fragile; piece one page has been cut out.
      6. Copy Book – January 1925-March 1930; section of two pages have been cut out.
      7. Copy Book – June 1930-November 1935; book has water damage.
      8. Copy Book – February 1937-September 1941; newspaper clippings are from El Mundo; includes certificate of completion-blank; photographs.
      9. Copy Book – July 1939-November 1944; some advertisements have been removed; clippings are from La Tribuna.
      10. Copy Book – December 1935-August 1942; book has loose pages.

    1. Additional Materials from Oscar Meisel Jr.
      1. Technical Drawings
        1. Roll 1
          1. Perspective of Chair
          2. Perspective of Bookcase
          3. Lines - Plate I (September 7, 1935)
          4. Lines - Plate I (September 7, 1935)
        2. Roll 2
          1. Enriched Mouldings (July 25, 1936)
          2. Geometrical Ornament (January 31, 1936)
          3. Scrolls and Volutes – Plate V (September 7, 1937)
          4. Conventional Foliage – Plate IV (January 15, 1937)
          5. Enriched Mouldings – Plate III (September 2, 1936)
          6. Geometrical Ornament – Plate II (February 14, 1936)
          7. Grecian In Antis Temple
        3. Roll 3
          1. International Correspondence School, Elements of Timber Drawing, Plate 2, Details of Wooden Truss (August 15, 1940)
          2. International Correspondence School, Elements of Structural Drawing, Plate 2, Details of Beams and Column (February 8, 1940) 
          3. International Correspondence School, Elements of Concrete Drawing, Plate 4, Details of Flat Slab Construction II (December 22, 1940) 
          4. International Correspondence School, Elements of Concrete Drawing, Plate 3, Details of Flat Slab Construction I (December 10, 1940) 
          5. International Correspondence School, Elements of Timber Drawing, Plate 3, Details of Wood Trestle (August 26, 1940) 
          6. International Correspondence School, Elements of Concrete Drawing, Plate 2, Beam and Girder Construction (October 17,1940) 
          7. International Correspondence School, Elements of Concrete Drawing, Plate 1, Beam and Girder Construction (September 15, 1940) 
          8. International Correspondence School, Elements of Structural Drawing, Plate 1, Structural Steel Shapes (January 11, 1940) 
          9. International Correspondence School, Elements of Structural Drawing, Plate 3, Details of Column and Girder (March 3, 1940
          10. International Correspondence School, Elements of StructuralDrawing, Plate 4, Details of Roof Truss (May 26, 1940)
        4. Roll 4
          1. International Correspondence School, Elements of Structural Drawing, Plate 3, Details of Column and Girder (March 21, 1)
          2. Untitled – Figure 6 
          3. Untitled – Figure 7
          4. Untitled – Figure 8
          5. Untitled – Figure 9
          6. Untitled – Figure 10
          7. Untitled
          8. Untitled
          9. First Floor Plan, Residence, John Smith Esq. (August 27, 1938)
          10. Second Floor Plan, Residence, John Smith Esq. (September 14,1938)
          11. South Elevation, Plate III, Residence, John Smith Esq. December 4, 1938) 
          12. Lettering and Indications, Plate I (January 28, 1938)
          13. Second Floor Plan, Plate II, Residence, John Smith Esq.(September 6, 1938)
          14. Exercise I, Plate IV (March 19, 1938)
          15. Exercise I, Plate III (March 7, 1938)
          16. 3” Scale Detail, Plate II (February 19, 1938)
          17. South Elevation, Plate III, Residence, John Smith Esq.(November)
          18. Column Design
          19. International Correspondence School, Elements of Structural Drawing, Plate I, Structural Steel Shapes (January 15, 1940)
          20. Detail of Main Entrance (April 1, 1938)
          21. First Floor Plan, Plate I, Residence, John Smith Esq. (August 26, 1938)
          22. Plate VI, Exercises I & II (April 11, 1938)
          23. Plate VI, Exercises I & II (April 11, 19380
          24. Plate II, Detail of Cellar Window and Water Table (February 20, 1938)
        5. Roll 5
          1. Exercise in House Planning, Examination Question 5 (April 12, 1939)
          2. Exercise in House Planning, Examination Question 5 (April 15, 1939) 
          3. International Correspondence School, Elements of Timber Drawing, Plate I, Details of Timber Mill Bldg (June 30, 1940) 
          4. International Correspondence School, Elements of Structural Drawing, Plate II, Details of Beams and Column (February 11, 1940)
          5. Exercise I, Plate III (March 9, 1938)
          6. Lettering and Indications, Plate I (February 3, 1938)
          7. Detail of Main Entrance, Exercise 1, Plate V (April 4, 1938)
          8. Exercise I, Plate IV (March 21, 1938)
          9. Detail of Entrance Doorway 
          10. Beam and Girder Construction
        6. Roll 6
          1. Graphical Analysis of Stresses, Part 2, Editions 2
          2. Stress Diagram, Problem 1 
          3. Stress Diagram, Problem 2 
          4. Stress Diagram, Problem 3 
          5. Frame Diagram, Problem 4 
          6. Stress Diagram, Problem 5 
          7. Stress Diagram, Problem 6 
          8. Stress Diagram, Problem 7 
          9. Stress Diagram, Problem 9 
          10. Stress Diagram, Problem 10
        7. Roll 7
          1. Freehand Ornaments
          2. Untitled
          3. Untitled
          4. Untitled
          5. Untitled
          6. Untitled
          7. Untitled
          8. Untitled
      2. Journal with Drawings and Problems
      3. Blueprints – James A. BrownSouth Elevation, Residence, John Smith Esq. (December 12)
        1. East Elevation, Residence, John Smith Esq. (December 12)
        2. ransverse Section on Line A – B, Residence, John Smith Esq. (December 12)
        3. Longitudinal Section on Line C – D, Residence, John Smith Esq. (December 12)
        4. Second Floor Plan, Residence, John Smith Esq. (December 12)
        5. West Elevation 
        6. Third (Attic) Floor Plan
        7. North Elevation 
        8. Basement Plan
        9. First Floor Plan
      4. Correspondence and Information from ICS to Oscar Meisel Jr.
      5. Envelope containing the first set of drawings (1934) by Oscar Meisel Jr.
      6. ICS Supplement Lessons
      7. Ruled Pad with Notes and Problems
      8. Geometrical Drawing Problems (15 pages)
      9. Projections (16 pages)
      10. Intersections (6 pages)
      11. Developments (4 pages)
      12. Lettering Sheet
      13. Problems I – IV on pillar design (January 22 – March 3, 1939)
      14. House rendering
      15. Pad of ICS Structural Problems
      16. 4 ICS Exam Binders

  1. Answers to Exam Questions of Lincoln Conrad
    1. Interior Wiring Part 2 - November 2, 1917
    2. Practical Mathematics Part 1 – December 8, 1915
    3. Direct Current Generators – January 30, 1918
    4. Sign Wiring – December 6, 1917
    5. Introduction to Study – December 1, 1915
    6. Practical Mathematics Part 4 – January 12, 1916 
    7. Practical Mathematics Part 6 – February 2, 1917
    8. Practical Mathematics Part 3 – December 23, 1915
    9. Electricity and Magnetism Part 1 – March 27, 1916
    10. D.C. Measuring Instruments
    11. Theory of Direct Current Generators and Motors – October 6, 1916
    12. Alternating Currents Part 1 – May 8, 1917
    13. Practical Mathematics Part 2 – December 16, 1915 
    14. Mechanics and Machine Elements – February 12, 1916
    15. Practical Mathematics Part 5 – July 7, 1916
    16. D.C. Measuring Instruments – April 3, 1917
    17. Practical Mathematics
    18. Direct Current Motors – February 13, 1918
    19. Study of Customer
    20. Correct and Faculty Diction
    21. Selling of Specialties Part 1
    22. Retail Salesmanship
    23. Selling to Dealers
    24. Resistance Measurements – February 9, 1917
    25. Alternating Currents Part 2 – September 10, 1917
    26. Interior Wiring Part 1 – July 11, 1917
    27. Sales Opq. And Management
    28. Law that Salesmen Should Know
    29. Selling of Specialties Part 2
    30. Health and Appearance
    31. Successful Reasoning Part 1
    32. Study of the Commodity
    33. Making the Sale Part 1
    34. Making the Sale Part 2
    35. Development of the Mental Qualities
    36. Retail Salesmanship Part 1
    37. Successful Reasoning Part 2
    38. Long Range Salesmanship
    39. Selling One’s Own Service
    40. Mental Qualities Needed for Salesmanship
    41. Credits and Collections
    42. Selling as a Business Force
    43. Alternators – March 6, 1918
    44. Electricity and Magnetism Part

If you are a former ICS student seeking transcripts or if you are seeking information on the current International Correspondence Schools please contact Penn Foster at: www.PennFoster.edu
1-800-275-4410 or at 1-570-342-7701

If you are seeking information on the historical collections of ICS (pre-1950) please contact Michael Knies

Telephone: (570) 941-6341 (for transcripts or diplomas see above note.)
Fax: (570) 941-7817
Email: Michael Knies, Helen Gallagher McHugh Special Collections Librarian