Edmund M. Kosmahl, PT, EdD

 GONIOMETRY WEB SITE


THORACO-LUMBAR SPINE FORWARD BENDING (flexion)

NOTE: There are several methods for measuring the range of motion of the lumbar and thoracic spines. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages (no method is completely valid or reliable, and normal values are not well established for any method). The method illustrated here is a good compromise. Take a baseline measurement with the patient standing upright, then take a second measurement with the subject in the forward bending position. Note the difference.

thoraco-lumbar starting position

 thoraco-lumbar spine flexion goniometry picture


Test Position

  • Subject standing
  • Flex thoracic and lumbar spines

Normal Range

  • 10 cm (Norkin and White)

Tape Measure Alignment

  • Spinous processes of C7 and S1

Normal End Feel

  • Capsular or ligamentous

copyright 1999 E. Kosmahl