Edmund M. Kosmahl, PT, EdD

1/courses/pt452/452page1.htm">PT452 Industrial PT |



NOTE: There are several methods for measuring the range of motion of the lumbar and thoracic spines. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages (no method is completely valid or reliable, and normal values are not well established for any method). The method illustrated here is a good compromise. Take a baseline measurement with the patient standing upright, then take a second measurement with the subject in the backward bending position. Note the difference.

thoraco-lumbar starting position

 thoraco-lumbar spine extension goniometry picture

Test Position

  • Subject standing
  • Extend thoracic and lumbar spines

Normal Range

  • ???

Tape Measure Alignment

  • Spinous processes of C7 and S1

Normal End Feel

  • Capsular or ligamentous (sometimes bony)

copyright 1999 E. Kosmahl