Edmund M. Kosmahl, PT, EdD

 GONIOMETRY WEB SITE


SHOULDER MEDIAL (INTERNAL) ROTATION

 shoulder internal rotation photo

Test Position

  • Subject supine
  • Shoulder 90o abduction
  • Forearm neutral
  • Elbow flexed 90o
  • Stabilize arm

Normal Range

  • 69o  + or -  4.6o (American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons)
  • 90o (American Medical Association)
  • 68.8o (mean), 4.6o (standard deviation), (Boone and Azen)

Goniometer Alignment

  • Axis olecranon process of ulna
  • Stationary arm aligned vertically
  • Moving arm aligned with ulna (styloid process)

Normal End Feel

  • Capsular

copyright 1999 E. Kosmahl