Edmund M. Kosmahl, PT, EdD



 shoulder flexion photo

Test Position

  • Subject supine
  • Flatten lumbar spine (flex knees)
  • Shoulder no abduction, adduction or rotation
  • (note: to measure gleno-humeral motion, stabilize scapula)


Normal Range

(for shoulder complex flexion)

  • 167o  + or -  4.7o (American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons)
  • 150o (American Medical Association)
  • 166o (mean), 4.7o (standard deviation), (Boone and Azen)

Goniometer Alignment

  • Axis center of humeral head near acromion process
  • Stationary arm parallel mid-axillary line
  • Moving arm aligned with midline of humerus (lateral epicondyle)

Normal End Feel

  • Muscle Stretch

copyright 1999 E. Kosmahl