Edmund M. Kosmahl, PT, EdD

 GONIOMETRY WEB SITE


SHOULDER EXTENSION

 shoulder extension photo

Test Position

  • Subject prone
  • Shoulder no abduction, adduction or rotation
  • (note: to measure gleno-humeral motion, stabilize scapula)

 

Normal Range

(for shoulder complex flexion)

  • 62o  + or -  9.5o (American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons)
  • 50o (American Medical Association)
  • 62.3o (mean), 9.5o (standard deviation), (Boone and Azen)

Goniometer Alignment

  • Axis center of humeral head near acromion process
  • Stationary arm parallel mid-axillary line
  • Moving arm aligned with midline of humerus (lateral epicondyle)

Normal End Feel

  • Capsular or ligamentous

copyright 1999 E. Kosmahl