Edmund M. Kosmahl, PT, EdD



 shoulder abduction photo

Test Position

  • Subject supine
  • Shoulder 0o flexion and extension
  • Shoulder laterally (externally) rotated
  • Shoulder abducted
  • Stabilize thorax (note: to measure gleno-humeral motion, stabilize scapula)


Normal Range

(for shoulder complex abduction)

  • 184o  + or -  7.0o (American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons)
  • 180o (American Medical Association)
  • 184o (mean), 7.0o (standard deviation), (Boone and Azen)

Goniometer Alignment

  • Axis center of humeral head near acromion process
  • Stationary arm parallel to sternum
  • Moving arm aligned with midline of humerus

Normal End Feel

  • Muscle Stretch

copyright 1999 E. Kosmahl