Edmund M. Kosmahl, PT, EdD

 
 GONIOMETRY WEB SITE

SHOULDER LATERAL (EXTERNAL) ROTATION

 
 
Test Position

 

  • Subject supine 
  • Shoulder 90o abduction
  • Forearm neutral
  • Elbow flexed 90o
  • Stabilize arm
 
Normal Range

 

  • 104o  + or -  8.5o (American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons)
  • 90o (American Medical Association)
  • 103o (mean), 8.5o (standard deviation), (Boone and Azen)
Goniometer Alignment

 

  • Axis olecranon process of ulna
  • Stationary arm aligned vertically
  • Moving arm aligned with ulna (styloid process) 
Normal End Feel

 

  • Capsular

copyright 1999 E. Kosmahl