Edmund M. Kosmahl, PT, EdD




The first photo demonstrates a good method for measuring 1st or 5th MTP joint plantarflexion by placing the goniometer alongside the bones. This technique cannot be used for the 2nd, 3rd, or 4th MTP joints. The second photo shows a technique for measuring these joints.

 MTP plantarflexion goniometry picture

Test Position

  • Subject supine
  • Stabilize 1st metatarsal
  • Plantarflex MTP

Normal Range

  • 1st - 30o , 2nd - 30o , 3rd - 20o , 4th - 10o , 5th - 10o (American Medical Association)

Goniometer Alignment

  • Axis medial to center of metararsal head
  • Stationary arm aligned metatarsal
  • Moving arm aligned with proximal phalange

Normal End Feel

  • Capsular

Assessing MTP Plantarflexion by Placing Goniometer on Dorsum of Bones

(requires modified goniometer)

MTP plantarflexion goniometer on dorsum picture

copyright 1999 E. Kosmahl