Edmund M. Kosmahl, PT, EdD



Note: This page demonstrates the technique for index proximal interphalangeal joint flexion. The technique for all other interphalangeal joints is similar. Simply align the goniometer over the proximal and distal joint partners (bones) for the joint you wish to measure. 

IP Flexion Photo

Test Position

  • Subject sitting with forearm resting on table
  • Wrist, metacarpal, and non-tested interphalangeal joints relaxed
  • Forearm neutral
  • Stabilize proximal bone to prevent motion

Normal Range

American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons

  • PIP fingers - 102o (index), 105o (long), 108o (ring), 106o (little) ( active motion)
  • DIP fingers - 72o (index), 71o (long), 63o (ring), 65o (little) ( active motion)
  • IP thumb - 73o

American Medical Association

  • 100o (PIP fingers), 70o (DIP fingers), 80o (IP thumb)

Goniometer Alignment

  • dorsal proximal interphalangeal joint
  • Stationary arm aligned with proximal phalange
  • Moving arm aligned with middle phalange

Normal End Feel

Proximal Interphalangeal Finger Joints

  • bone on bone (if tissues overlying palmar aspect of bones is thin)
  • soft tissue approximation (if tissues overlying palmar aspect of bones is thick)

Distal Interphalangeal Finger Joints and Thumb Interphalangeal Joint

  • capsular

copyright 1999 E. Kosmahl