Edmund M. Kosmahl, PT, EdD



Note: This page demonstrates the technique for index proximal interphalangeal joint extension. The technique for all other interphalangeal joints is similar. Simply align the goniometer over the proximal and distal joint partners (bones) for the joint you wish to measure. 

IP Flexion Photo

Test Position

  • Subject sitting with forearm resting on table
  • Wrist, metacarpal, and non-tested interphalangeal joints relaxed
  • Forearm neutral
  • Stabilize proximal bone to prevent motion

Normal Range

American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons

  • PIP fingers - 7o (index and long), 6o (ring), 9o (little) ( active motion)
  • DIP fingers - 8o (all finger DIPs)
  • IP thumb - 5o
  • 0o (American Medical Association)

Goniometer Alignment

  • dorsal proximal interphalangeal joint
  • Stationary arm aligned with proximal phalange
  • Moving arm aligned with middle phalange

Normal End Feel

  • capsular

copyright 1999 E. Kosmahl