Edmund M. Kosmahl, PT, EdD


 hip flexion goniometry picture

Test Position

  • Subject supine
  • Allow knee to flex (to avoid limitation by tight hamstrings)
  • Stabilize pelvis to prevent rotation
  • Flex hip

Normal Range


  • 121.0o + or - 6.4o (American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons)
  • 100.0o (American Medical Association)
  • 122.3o (mean), 6.1o (standard deviation), (Boone and Azen)

Goniometer Alignment

  • Axis greater trochanter
  • Stationary arm aligned with midline of plevis
  • Moving arm aligned with femur (lateral epicondyle)

Normal End Feel


  • Capsular

copyright 1999 E. Kosmahl