Edmund M. Kosmahl, PT, EdD



 hip adduction goniometry picture

Test Position

  • Subject supine
  • Stabilize pelvis to prevent pelvic list
  • Abduct opposite hip (to allow room for tested limb to adduct)
  • Adduct hip

Normal Range

  • 27.0o + or - 3.6o (American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons)
  • 20.0o (American Medical Association)
  • 26.9o (mean), 4.1o (standard deviation), (Boone and Azen)

Goniometer Alignment

  • Axis anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS)
  • Stationary arm aligned with opposite ASIS
  • Moving arm aligned with femur (center of patella)

Normal End Feel


  • Capsular or ligamentous

copyright 1999 E. Kosmahl