Edmund M. Kosmahl, PT, EdD



American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (Green WB, Heckman JD eds.): The Clinical Measurement of Joint Motion. 6300 North River Road, Rosemont, IL 60018, 1994, ISBN 0-89203-090-9.

American Medical Association: Guide to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment. AMA, Chicago, 1988.

Boone DC, Azen SP: Normal range of motion of joints in male subjects. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 1979;61A:756-759.

Fitzgerald GK, Wynveen KJ, Rheault W, et al: Objective assessment with establishment of normal values for lumbar spinal region range of motion. Physical Therapy Nov 1983;63(11):1776-1781.

Friedman MH, Weisberg J: Temperomandibular Joint Disorders: Diagnosis and Treatment. Quintessence Books, Chicago, 1985, ISBN 0-86715-137-4.

Magee DJ: Orthopedic Physical Assessment, 3rd ed. WB Saunders Co, Philadelphia, 1997, ISBN 0-7216-6290-0.

Norkin CC, White DJ: Measurement of Joint Motion: A Guide to Goniometry, 2nd ed. FA Davis Co, Philadelphia, 1995, ISBN 0-8036-6579-2.

copyright 1999 E. Kosmahl