Edmund M. Kosmahl, PT, EdD



a. the quality of resistance at end of range

b. each joint has a normal end feel at a normal point in the range of motion (ROM)

c. incorrect end feel, or correct end feel at incorrect ROM indicate pathology

d. Terms: I suggest my terms for clarity of communication (to clearly identify the structure that the tester feels is limiting the ROM). Other authors use different terms - eg. hard, firm, soft, etc. I feel these "vague" terms lead to communication errors.

Testing End Feel for Elbow Extension

endfeel elbow

copyright 1999 E. Kosmahl