Edmund M. Kosmahl, PT, EdD

 GONIOMETRY WEB SITE


ELBOW FLEXION

Elbow Flexion Goniometry Picture

 

Test Position

  • Subject supine
  • Shoulder neutral (arm at side)
  • Forearm supinated
  • Elbow flexed
  • Stabilize arm

 

Normal Range

  • 141.0o  + or -  4.9o (American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons)
  • 140.0o (American Medical Association)
  • 142.9o (mean), 5.6o (standard deviation), (Boone and Azen)

Goniometer Alignment

  • Axis lateral epicondyle of humerus
  • Stationary arm aligned with humerus (center of acromion process)
  • Moving arm aligned with radius (styloid process)

Normal End Feel

  • Soft tissue approximation (capsular for thin subjects)

copyright 1999 E. Kosmahl