Edmund M. Kosmahl, PT, EdD

 GONIOMETRY WEB SITE


ELBOW EXTENSION

Elbow Extension Goniometry Picture

Test Position

 

  • Subject supine
  • Shoulder neutral (arm at side)
  • Forearm supinated
  • Elbow extended
  • Stabilize arm

 

Normal Range

 

  • 0.3o  + or -  2.0o (American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons)
  • 0.0o (American Medical Association)
  • 0.6o (mean), 3.1o (standard deviation), (Boone and Azen)

Goniometer Alignment

 

  • Axis lateral epicondyle of humerus
  • Stationary arm aligned with humerus (center of acromion process)
  • Moving arm aligned with radius (styloid process)

Normal End Feel

  • Bone on bone

copyright 1999 E. Kosmahl