Edmund M. Kosmahl, PT, EdD

 GONIOMETRY WEB SITE


CERVICAL SPINE SIDEBENDING

 cervical spine sidebending goniometry picture


Test Position

  • Subject sitting with lumbar and thoracic spines supported
  • Stabilize lumbar and thoracic spines
  • Sidebend cervical spine

Normal Range (unilateral)

  • 50.5o + or - 5.5o (20 - 29 yrs.), 46.5o + or - 6.5o (30 - 49 yrs.), 40o + or - 8.5o (>50 yrs.) (American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons)
  • 45o (American Medical Association)

Goniometer Alignment

  • Axis spinous process of C7
  • Stationary arm spinous processes of thoracic spine
  • Moving arm posterior midline of head at occipital protuberance

Normal End Feel

  • Capsular or ligamentous

copyright 1999 E. Kosmahl