Edmund M. Kosmahl, PT, EdD

 GONIOMETRY WEB SITE


CERVICAL SPINE FORWARD BENDING (flexion)

 cervical spine flexion goniometry picture

Test Position

  • Subject sitting with lumbar and thoracic spines supported
  • Stabilize lumbar and thoracic spines
  • Flex cervical spine

Normal Range

 

  • 75.5o + or - 8.5o (20 - 29 yrs.), 70.5o + or - 17.5o (30 - 49 yrs.), 64.5o + or - 7o (>50 yrs.) (American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons)
  • 60o (American Medical Association)

Goniometer Alignment

  • Axis external auditory meatus
  • Stationary arm vertical
  • Moving arm aligned with nostrils

Normal End Feel

  • Capsular or ligamentous

copyright 1999 E. Kosmahl