Edmund M. Kosmahl, PT, EdD



 calcaneal inversion goniometry picture

Test Position

  • Subject prone
  • Stabilize tibia in sagittal plane (rotate hip or pelvis to align tibia)
  • Evert calcaneus

Normal Range

  • 1/3 of total range from extreme of inversion to extreme of eversion should be eversion. About 10o eversion (and 20o inversion) on average (Seibel MO: Foot Function: A Programmed Text,p. 72, Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1988)
  • 21.0o + or - 5.0o (American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons)

Goniometer Alignment

  • Axis automatically positioned by alignment of goniometer arms
  • Stationary arm aligned with midline of leg
  • Moving arm aligned with midline of calcaneus

Normal End Feel


  • Capsular

copyright 1999 E. Kosmahl